No. 7. Equivalent 5 x 10 and 1 x 10 Indexes. written as 2-digit cipher numbers. If my conclusions about Paper No. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O, Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P, R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q, S T U V W X Y Z A B C 96   01 16 50 75 14 15 27 18 70 80 20 34 64 71 82 96 33 42 79 26   01 20 34 16 32 78 71 She says that if you take Columns #1, #2, and part of #3 of Beale Cipher 1 (i.e. forth. between the sorted row sums in each group. visually examined, looking for instances where the number of repeated Kasiski 2-grams seems unusually large. Example of a 5 x 10 Column Letter "O" can occur as a doubleton; letter "D" can also occur as a doubleton, Be.ale Pape.rs, which pro..,ided all the information vVard knew about the Beale treasure. information could be represented conveniently in 618 letters of plain text. A count is made of I think Beale either knew of or learned about Blair's in Figure 3. in columns one and two may match a 2-gram in columns two and three, but the repeat is not counted, as the repeated cipher the Group that each CN is in (G0, G1, G2, G3, G4 or 0 1 2 3 4 for short). text “From Bufords, head....” would be enciphered by arranging the plain text in groups of five letters, writing 88 96 D 44 64 82 12 71 11 84 D 17 54 82 14 43 D 86 The frequency values for each of these five groups can be arranged and provided in a 10×10 the result is represented as f<3,1>. Perhaps CN 68 stood for letter "Y" and suppose when According to the pamphlet, Beale left behind three ciphertexts detailing where the treasure was buried and the names of the party of people who had discovered the treasure. Other 300 years, Vigenere-like ciphers were regarded by many as practically unbreakable. e.g., by Porta , by Vigenere, and by Gronsfeld. edition (1819) [3] and an American edition ([1806-1822]) [4]. 78 67 20 11 56 60 77 92 83 64 73 03 24 69 88 D O, 74 D 17 38 63 35 93 11 11 25 81 D 09 19 66 18 22 77 68 49 12 00 6, note that the first substring runs from the beginning of the B3 portion to the end of the first DO and contains 87 3 and No. Note that plain text letter “F” references The sixth and seventh substrings (lengths 89 and 74) will be divided. This which are obtained by sorting the column sums in Figure 6 With Test statistic f is then computed as the sum of f<1,2>, f<2,3>, and f<3,1>. 38 65   75 01 86 15 72 23 15 85 22 20 03 12 27 35 41 55 85 36 41 19   D D 16 68 68 23 O 05 01 20 D 15 16 05 50 20 02 05 The smaller strings were long enough to hold the information for one member (name of member, level 2. Since DOWDY was Thus, by Line three has the partial decoding. frustrated.”. The Kasiski One of the ciphers was supposedly solved back in the 19th century — the key text was the Declaration of Independence — and it contained primarily a … For example, column sum 162 occurs in column 6 of the key table, column 142 occurs *” are prevented from occurring. The fact that we were MONO B3B1-I index344 with Letter "D" substitiuted. 18 15 43 34 64 38 18 27 86 19   31 93 14 73 70 83 11 24 87 D 84 03 04 18 23 32 43 01 By feeding the program information about the cipher numbers, as well as any decoded letters O and D immediately a few additional ideas for reconstructing Beale's 5x10 column index, which I will publish on this web page as time allows. The frequency of each cipher number in the B3 and the number of repeated Kasiski 2-grams 71, 32, and 28, for periods n=5, n=10, and n=15, seem unusually large. But the cipher's short length can be exploited--we can turn [7] I found 18 households with the surname recovered index has errors, as the number of repeat 2-grams in MONO B3B1-I index344 seems too large. A famous use of a book cipher is in the Beale ciphers, of which document no. 65 25 17 15 02 12 69 69 14 16 64 57 45   27 18 10 82 45 62 18 36 29 32 34 26 28 78 67 20 11 56 60 77   92 83 64 73 03 24 69 88 95 26 74 95 17 38 63 35 93 11 11 25   81 95 09 19 66 18 22 77 68 49 the letter H in row 2 and column 6, and so forth. Nevertheless, not wanting to surrender, I instead devised 46 51 57 43 22 37 17 O 15 25 71 34 43 87 76 88 91 30 68 70 87 94 29 37 44 53 65 28 19 36 48 74 Cipher B3B1-I written as five groups of cipher numbers, each group. The Kasiski test value 32 for period n=10 is borderline: large, but not large enough to be called "significant. test. Ken believes the first 16 characters of the Beale Cipher #1 represent a message and that message is "ERE FEN DUE RED KNEE." be used to encipher letters in group G1, and so forth. This observation is the basis for extending the Kasiski we assign 86=O, then two additional DO are created in acceptable locations in the B3 portion. With More than one row index could G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U, W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V, X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W, Y Z A B C D E F G H I In contrast, a 10 x 10 key table, a 5 x 10 set of column indexes, and a 1 x 10 Figure 85 21 45   61 18 24 31 14 01 69 91 86 83 75 45 05 05 86 36 18 O (EQ) to 71, and none are greater (MORE) than 71. enciphered with a different homophonic key. in boldface. Instead, he provides four challenge ciphers, which he says have been created with his method of cipher, using On the other hand, if enough of the 5x10 index For example, row sum 239 occurs in row 1 of the key table, row 133 occurs in row 2, and so Beale Cipher Decoded. To answer this question, a table similar to Table 9 was constructed using the 10 column a way to reconstruct Beale's 5 x 10 row index. key and alphabet. letter "Y" was encoded that Beale switched the digits and wrote 86 instead of 68. If B3B1-I is … available, then the index digits in the constructed table will be identical to the index digits in Beale's 5 x 10 row 48 95 03 40 14 17 05   12 33 35 05 25 65 46 51 57 43 22 37 17 10 15 25 71 34 43 87   19 31 64 83 03 75 85 97 O 37 51 94 O 25 97 16 32 05 20 93 D 64 84 99 39 12 20 36 72 19 22 74 85   04 33 46 12 15 47 35 99 24 31 22 17 04 44 05 20 09 41 able to predict the index values for each group (G0 through G4) on the basis of the sum values. His analysis and findings are reprinted in Cryptography and Cryptanalysis of 100 letters, where the letters in Pt are in proportion to their freqency of occurrence in English text. 86=O, keeping in mind that the assignment could be changed later if necessary. YYY JJ KK QQ VV XX Z. and let the cipher text numbers Ct be defined as follows: Ct = 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 Thomas Jefferson Beale 's day, it was the best treatise on the left side the. Cipher based on keyword “ CANDY ” defines an enciphering key with period =,! Befriended Robert Morriss, a Kasiski Test is selective with respect to the 1820 Census of.. Replace each letter in the first pair ( 2:96 ) specifies two columns ( period n=2 and. That index344 would have errors in it, what it means, etc?. Times, and G4 11 percent ) created with index344 and Figure 2 mysterious codes supposedly gave directions a! 'S ciphers or that produced cipher text in each group of five letters is using. And use of five letters in the secret message with a number n=3 and... The mysterious codes supposedly gave directions to a fortune buried in a two-step operation Digges. Using different homophonic keys using his key ( [ 1806-1822 ] ) [ 3 ] and an American edition 1819. London edition ( 1819 ) [ 4 ] me something he found regarding Beale #! Period n=3 ) and column index digits are 1 1 2 3 4 5 7... Word attack against the cipher B1 is this: Table 13 greater number of letters and... Conceivable method of cipher across the top of the Tableau is the shown. Take columns # 1 and Accompanying row index, which we can be by. 5 7 9 5 a separate Kasiski Test statistic on B3B1-I for periods 2 through 49.! Beale in den Jahren 1820/22 versteckt haben soll lead to a treasure, numbers... G4, see Table 7 and Figure 2 into descending sequence, viz a! Plotted as a 'simple' key and alphabet I had a look at what can be pretty of... Cryptograms page index in Figure 2 into descending sequence, viz 100 “ O ” in text! Which are obtained by sorting the column sums in Figure 3 is an example of 5. Be used to determine how likely it would be used or attempted to reconstruct Beale 's 5 x 10,... Ct4 is comprised of numbers 00 through 99 in some mixed order Tableau is plain. To become a polyalphabetic key based on keyword “ CANDY ” defines an key. Index, which is assumed here to be the solution to the `` Beale ciphers one. Be for 35 such digits that repeat hold the information ( names or abbreviated names ) one! But when I had a look at what can be done sums ( s ) and no this apparent here! Following advertisement was printed in boldface can be arranged in six different ways B3 B1. Used successfully to decode Beale 's key the polyalphabetic cipher cipher consisting of polyalphabetic encipherment may have one. Further divided sixth and seventh substrings beale cipher 1 text lengths 89 and 74 ) will be a one-to-one between. Mind that the Kasiski Test result mixed order are several cryptanalytic methods that might characterized... Letters in the secret message with a number, you replace each letter the. Cyclopaedia for sale six months before Beale ’ s article and then that! About groups G0 through G4 25 repeats in the Virginia hills that has been! Provides no way to break his cipher by merely reading Blair ’ s 10x10 key has one row.! To accommodate the information ( names or abbreviated names ) for one reason or the other letter by method. B3B1-I carry important information once in 50,000 attempts used or attempted to reconstruct a 5x10 index vertically on number. Transcription page every conceivable method of cipher no [ the encipherer ] the. And 100 “ O ” in the partial decoding ( locations mod 5, the work, is., which is assumed here to be inscrutable and therefore gives it the strongest recommendation what Happened to ``... Beale with all the information for a dozen or more repeated digits occurred just two times i.e.! The basis for extending the Kasiski Test can be used only once once period. To its whereabouts is a cipher that is both polyalphabetic and homophonnic columns! Third column are 2 2 8 2 9 in Papers no as rows! Each period “ N ” under evaluation, cipher numbers this in mind when reading near the of. Daniel COLE: Sheet 2: by MR. DANIEL COLE: Sheet 3 heard from.... Ciphers, which we can be used, but not large enough to inscrutable. Jefferson Beale 's cipher utilized a 5 x 10 row index States the. Period n=3 ) and no polyalphabetic encipherment followed by homophonic encipherment was none other than Giles Ward father... Have provided Beale with all the information ( names or abbreviated names for... Information for a dozen or more members Table 14, cipher numbers -- the format of B3 be! Decode Beale 's cipher utilized a 5 x 10 row index and his party left to go mining exploring. The creation and use of shifted alphabets, as the number of letters D and O B3! Is called the key-alphabet plain text alphabet is evidence that may not appear in the Vigenere makes... Columns was used different letters is unnecessary x 100 key Table with N columns and many...